AA Literature: Revise? Reject? Replace?

By John L.

Good afternoon.  I’m John, and I am an alcoholic.  My home group is Atheists and Agnostics in Boston.  Last February this year I celebrated 50 years of continuous AA sobriety.

What approach should we take to AA literature?  This depends on whether we freethinkers (my preferred word) should be content to make a safe place for ourselves in AA — or should try to reform AA — or should split from AA.  I personally feel we should stay in AA, claim our rights as full, bona fide AA groups and members, and also try to reform AA.  I’m going to suggest changes that ought to be made in AA literature.  This isn’t just getting rid of the god stuff that doesn’t belong there.  It’s also understanding what’s missing: the true AA, the AA that works.

Politics has been described as the “art of the possible”.  While this may be true, we should be able to discuss what ought to be — even if this may not be politically correct or feasible in the short run.

Now I’ll give my opinions on AA literature — bluntly, without beating around the bush.  But these are just my opinions.  I look forward to hearing from the rest of you in the discussion period.

Let’s start with the Big Book.  Overall, it is harmful and poorly written.  I used to say that the best parts were the personal stories, but found out that these stories were edited to make it seem that all of the recovering alcoholics owe their sobriety to a spiritual awakening, higher power, or some other intangible.  When the Big Book was published, many of these people were furious at what Bill W. had done to their stories.  Unfortunately, the Big Book is entrenched as the AA Bible.  It could no more be revised than could the Ten Commandments or the Sermon on the Mount.  I suggest we leave the Big Book alone, while doing our best to marginalize it, and also doing our best to promote good literature.

Next, the Twelve and Twelve (12 & 12).  The first part, consisting of Bill W.’s comments on his own Steps, contains some of the most loathsome passages in all of AA literature.  However, the second part, dealing with the Traditions and written by Tom Powers, Bill W.’s editor and ghost writer, has some good parts.  As with the Big Book, I suggest we leave the 12 & 12 alone, but whenever possible point out the harmfulness and stupidity of the worst passages.

By far the best AA-published book is Living Sober.  It was written by Barry Leach, but published anonymously.  Living Sober distills the best of the True AA.  It gives practical advice on how to stay sober and lead a good life in sobriety.  In my home group — Atheists & Agnostics in Boston — we start off by reading a chapter from Living Sober, followed by discussion.  I gave a talk on Living Sober at the Austin conference, and that talk is online on the Beyond Belief site.

Now we come to the pamphlets, where revisions can and ought to be made.  Here we need to think of newcomers.  Attending their first AA meeting, newcomers may take pamphlets to find out what AA is about, and then be fatally turned off by hokey and irrelevant religiosity.

On the whole the pamphlets are well done.  But, even in the best of them, standing out like sore thumbs, are passages of religiosity.  And almost all of the pamphlets reprint “The Twelve Steps Of Alcoholics Anonymous”, as though these were the heart of AA.  I’ll get to the Steps later.

One of the best pamphlets is “The A.A. Group — Where it all begins”.  This pamphlet has good, practical advice on how to start and run a group.  But up-front it quotes Bill W.: “God has enabled us to do well, blah blah blah.”  Throughout the pamphlet, interspersed through the excellent practical advice, are plugs for the Big Book, the 12&12, the Steps, “How It Works”, prayers, “spirituality”.  All of this is gratuitous; it has nothing to do with the subject of the pamphlet.

“Do You Think You’re Different?” — written by Barry Leach, the author of Living Sober — is an excellent pamphlet.  It has short stories of a black female, a male 79-year-old, a gay male, a male atheist, a female Native American, a female teenager, a clergyman, a lesbian, a Jewish male, a movie star, a low-bottom drunk, a high-bottom drunk, and a female agnostic.  All of these thought they were “different”, but they found good sobriety and fellowship in AA.  One of these, the clergyman, describes the 24-Hour Plan as the heart of his recovery.  “God” is mentioned briefly, but only in the personal stories.  George, a Jewish alcoholic, makes a curious comment about the Christian “Lord’s Prayer”: Quote: “True, we end most of our meetings with the Lord’s Prayer, but even the atheists in the program do not often object to this formality.”  I disagree.  When I came into AA, in Greenwich Village in 1968, we non-believers most certainly did object — verbally and by defiantly remaining seated when others got up to recite the Lord’s Prayer.

“A.A. and the Gay/Lesbian Alcoholic” is a fine pamphlet.  In describing how AA works, the pamphlet gives due emphasis to The Preamble.  It has a section, We are not religious, which includes the statement: “Atheists, agnostics, and believers of all religions have a place in A.A. — provided they stay away from the first drink.”  Unfortunately, this excellent statement is followed by a section on the Steps, in which they are described  as “the heart of A.A.’s recovery program.”  Then, A.A.’s biggest falsehood is repeated:

These Twelve Steps are not based on mere theory; early members of the Fellowship analyzed together just what they had done to get and to stay sober.  The Steps are a summary of their experience and are a guide toward the spiritual recovery that is now working for more than a million and a half alcoholics worldwide.

None of this is true.  When Bill W. presented his newly concocted Steps to the group of struggling alcoholics in New York, some of them were furious at his foisting religion on them, when what they needed was to get and stay sober.  Even when the Big Book was published, it is doubtful whether any of these alcoholics had “worked” the Steps.  At any rate, the Steps did not develop from collective experience.  Still, the Gay/Lesbian pamphlet is a good one.  It concludes by saying: “Alcoholism … can be arrested by not picking up that first drink.  This we do one day at a time with the help and guidance of other sober members of Alcoholics Anonymous.  Staying stopped is what the program of A.A. is all about.”  End of quotation.  This is a perfect summation of the True AA.

“This is A.A. — An introduction to the A.A. Recovery Program” is another good pamphlet.  My only criticisms are its inevitable section on the Steps and its failure to include Living Sober in its listing of AA books at the end of the pamphlet.

The worst AA pamphlet is “The AA Member — Medications & Other Drugs”, which clearly shows the influence of Big Pharma propaganda, and is therefore in violation of the 6th and 10th Traditions.  (Big Pharma refers to the pharmaceutical industry.)  This goes off topic, but if anyone wants to discuss it after this workshop is over, I’m willing.

“The Twelve Traditions Illustrated” is a good pamphlet, despite its repulsively cute illustrations.  It does not reproduce the Steps.  But even here, in discussing the Second Tradition, it refers to AA as “a spiritual program” and to “the spiritual concept of the ‘group conscience’”.

To conclude: every single one of the pamphlets should be revised — to get rid of the religiosity, which doesn’t belong in them.

For the most part, the Traditions are fine.  Unlike the Steps, the Traditions really did develop out of experience, and they are the reason that AA has survived for eight decades.  However, one change ought to be made.  The second Tradition reads:

For our group purpose there is but one ultimate authority — a loving God as He may express Himself in our group conscience.  Our leaders are but trusted servants; they do not govern.”

This is asinine.  For example: Every year for decades the Perry Street Workshop held a group conscience meeting on the issue of smoking at meetings.  Every year the “loving God” decided in favor of cigarettes, until one year He changed His mind, and the group voted to ban smoking.  When the smoke cleared, almost everyone could see that smoking should not have been allowed in the first place.  But by then smoking had already killed dozens or even hundreds of Perry Street members — some drank themselves to death because they’d been driven away by the smoke; some died of cancer, heart attacks, or emphysema; some relapsed on cigarettes, after having kicked the habit, since the second-hand smoke reactivated their addiction.  With a “loving God” like this, who need fiends from Hell?

The second Tradition should be re-written to say in plain English what is really meant.  This is my version:

Groups make decisions democratically — by voting.  Our leaders are trusted servants; they are not bosses.

Now, the Steps, which are part of AA literature.  Either the Steps are the heart of AA, or they are the heart of what’s wrong with AA.  Do we strive for personality change through the Steps?  Or, does personality change take place through abstinence and time and physical recovery and the Fellowship?  I believe the latter.  When we drank, our bodies, including brains, were poisoned by alcohol.  We did bad things.  Our lives were a mess.  When we stopped drinking, our bodies and brains began to heal. Through the power of abstinence and the Fellowship, our personalities changed for the better.  Our lives became manageable.

Overall, I consider the Steps harmful, and have analyzed them in a chapter, “A Searching and Fearless Inventory of the A.A. Steps Themselves”, in my book, A Freethinker in Alcoholics Anonymous.  Since the Steps are sacrosanct, it would be futile to try revising them, although we can make secular versions for our own meetings.  In the short run I propose one change: The word “suggested” should be added, or rather restored, to the header above the Steps, which would then read: “Twelve Suggested Steps” or “The Twelve Suggested Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous”.

Found at the “Day at a Time” group in Dudley, Massachusetts

When I came into AA fifty years ago in Manhattan, the hand-lettered “Twelve Suggested Steps” were on the wall of the Perry Street Workshop.  In the first and second editions of the Big Book, the Steps are listed only in the fifth chapter, but not separately, and they are merely “suggested as a program of recovery.”  The word “suggested” was in the header of the Steps, whether in pamphlets or roller-blinds.  Even now, many older groups still have “suggested” above the Steps.  It was wrong that the word “suggested” was ever dropped.  We should demand — yes, demand — that it be restored in all AA publications and in the roller-blinds.  Groups who already own a roller blind should take a magic marker and write in “SUGGESTED”.

In the long run, the Steps should be replaced — by The 24-Hour Plan, as worded in the “Akron Manual” of 1940, AA’s first year of existence.  Here it is in a handout.  I have edited it very slightly, mostly to eliminate irrelevant material.  The 24-Hour Plan has always been at the heart of the true AA.  It was by 1940; it was in the early 1950s, when a friend of my father’s joined AA; and it was in 1968, when I came in.

There are three “conference-approved” and AA-published histories: Alcoholics Anonymous Comes of Age: A brief history of A.A. (1957/1985), Dr. Bob and the Good Oldtimers: A biography, with recollections of early A.A. in the Midwest (1980), and ‘Pass It On’: The story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world (1984).  If we were to begin going into these histories, this workshop would go on for several days.  Suffice it to say that all three are reasonably well written; all of them toe the party line; and all have false statements, as well as important omissions.

I like the Dr. Bob book the best.  His character defects are not covered up: he was in many ways an irrational and intolerant man.  The book gives at least some credit to the Clevelanders for creating the AA we know today.

Alcoholics Anonymous Comes of Age was written by Bill W. (at least he got the royalties), although it was really written and edited by ghost writers.  I’ve read many of Bill’s handwritten letters in GSO in New York, and believe me, he always needed help in writing.  There is interesting material here, but unfortunately one cannot be sure all of it is true.

Pass It On is more hagiography than history.  Bill’s worst misdeeds are glossed over, minimized, or concealed.  Still, the book has useful information.  We learn that Bill received royalties not only from the Big Book, but from three other books as well.  The anonymous author writes: “Bill’s royalty payments were his only source of income”, which sounds as though Bill and Lois were just scraping by.  In fact, Bill was receiving millions of dollars in royalties, back when one million dollars was truly a fortune.  In contrast, Barry Leach received only a one-time payment for writing Living Sober.  When it became a bestseller, he requested that AA grant him some royalties; AA refused.

We should think beyond AA “conference-approved” literature.  The best book on alcoholism, in my opinion, is Under The Influence by James R. Milam.  There are also books by those who write for AA Beyond Belief and AA Agnostica, and who have contributed to our movement.

Our literature should be truthful.  Perhaps a few of the more egregious errors in AA’s authorized histories could be corrected (not to mention typos, which are still there), but thorough revisions will never be done.  We need our own literature — and we have made a good start in the past decade.  I would like to see honest and discerning histories, which treat Bill and Bob fairly, but critically.  For example, I’d like to see a debunking of the absurd notion that Dr. Bob’s last drink constituted the founding of AA.  I’d like to see a well researched history of the first years of AA in Cleveland, where the best features of AA came into being.

On financial matters, we should be open and above reproach.  It should always be clear who profits, through royalties or otherwise.

We should realize what we’re up against.  AA literature represents a substantial industry, which won’t welcome criticism of its commodities.  We should be persistent, courteously militant, and vigilant.  We should not be timid, for intellectually and ethically, the high ground belongs to us, not to the Big Book thumpers.  It is we who represent the True AA.  We should look forward to the day when Alcoholics Anonymous itself will be secular.

About the Author

John was born and raised in Nebraska.  He attended  Harvard College (AB 1963), majoring in Social Relations (Sociology, Anthropology, and Psychology).  In New York City he worked as a market research executive, writing on the side.  He was in the antiwar movement since 1965 and the gay liberation movement since July 1969.  He founded Pagan Press in 1982. 

For a decade, beginning in 1985, John was a leading writer for the New York Native, which was then the foremost gay paper.  He has twelve books to his credit.  John dates his alcoholism from his first bender in 1958 to his last drink in 1968.  He considers himself a loyal, but by no means uncritical member of AA.  John now lives in Dorchester, Massachusetts.

Images of the 12 Suggested Steps

The hand-lettered Steps used as the lead image for this article can be found on the wall of the Perry Street Workshop in New York. The image of the window shade Steps used in the body of the article are located at “Day at a Time” group in Dudley, Massachusetts. These are very old, and almost certainly of the 1955 version.(A newer shade in Brooklyn, Conn. has copyright dates of 1939, 1955, and 1976. The 1939 date must refer to the Steps as printed in the first edition of the Big Book. Presumably, the 1955 date refers to the version with Suggested” added.) John L. is not alone in believing strongly that “Suggested” should be restored to the Steps.


Listen to John’s presentation at the International Conference of Secular AA in August 2018. 

John’s Adaptation of the 24-Hour Plan 

The 24-Hour Plan by John L.
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  1. John February 4, 2019 at 9:25 pm - Reply

    The big book thumpers are little more than a religious cult.  They have rules, regulations, a sacred text, male domination, rituals, and practice shunning.   Many even have dress codes, and self appointed leaders.  The ego of the alcoholic knows no bounds.

    The drug alcohol industrial complex is a multi billion dollar business, AA is only a small part of it.   Wilson just saw a business opportunity in “recovery”.  NA and OA are two more opportunist groups who, for profit, took advantage of an established brand.

    The traditions say that the only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking, that you don’t have to believe, do, say or pay anything.  The traditions say that AA is a program of attraction and not promotion.  Amazing how far the back to basics crowd have strayed from those concepts.

    Your one day at a time approach has been replaced by counting days and the worship of time.  Clancy, Joe and Charlie, Pacifica/Atlantic started 35 years ago, they have a big time head start.

    There is something in human nature that seems to need to create religion.  AA is simply a new religion and becomming more religious every day.

    Your approach seems better than A. “agent” Orange?  Good luck.

  2. Jim Driscoll November 28, 2018 at 10:08 pm - Reply

    tried to comment, but it said it was a duplicate



  3. Jim Driscoll November 28, 2018 at 10:06 pm - Reply

    I’ve spent a lot of time studying and working with groups making decisions. In social movements, we often rely on consensus, usually backed up  by a super majority requirement after a couple of tries at consensus, usually separated by some time. Of course, we are not relying on God to make the decision, but in the Gandhian tradition, we are seeking some “truth” that rarely arises from just one person. I would not just throw out the good resulting from our usually fairly slow paced attempts at consensus and general, at least in OA, reluctance to rush to a vote.



  4. marty nieski November 5, 2018 at 10:55 am - Reply

    John, Thanks for posting a picture of our 12 steps with your article.  We are a speaker commitment group which means we travel to a lot of other groups to swap speaking commitments, so I have seen many of the window shades disappear.  It’s unfortunate as newcomers may look at the new shades and think, “those must be the rules”.  I’ve been sober in the Dudley group for 37 years and we ain’t ever getting rid of our relic.  Thanks again,Marty,  Dudley Day At A Time Group – Dudley, Mass.

  5. G.B. October 28, 2018 at 5:23 pm - Reply

    It might be a good idea just to let AA be as is it has always been and to start a new association altogether, maybe named something like AAA : Abstinent Alcoholics Association, and to write, with some of the AA important principles as a  drawing board, and well inspired good stuff, a brand new litterature suitable with a real non religious structure to help every alcoholic in need of recovery.

    • John L. October 28, 2018 at 8:18 pm Reply

      I don’t think we should have to start from scratch, because the true AA — the AA that works, the AA that saves lives — belongs to us, not to the religionists or spiritualists.  By the “true AA” I mean the AA as described in the AA Preamble: the 24-Hour Plan (total abstinence a day at a time) and the Fellowship (sharing experience, strength, and hope).

  6. Peter T. October 15, 2018 at 11:37 am - Reply

    John, thanks for all your contributions to AA.

    All I have to add here is that I think Tradition 2 should start, “For our group purpose, there is NO ultimate authority.”

    I have always been able to begrudgingly accept Tradition 2 as is with the rationale “There is but one ultimate authority, a loving God – but he’s not here, so therefore there’s none”.

    • John L. October 15, 2018 at 12:41 pm Reply

      I wholeheartedly agree.  Let’s make the second tradition read:  “For our group purpose, there is no ultimate authority.  Groups make decisions democratically — by voting.  Our leaders are trusted servants; they are not bosses”

  7. Bob K October 14, 2018 at 5:16 pm - Reply

    It was a pleasure and an honor meeting you in Toronto. I particularly admire your campaign against the Lord’s Prayer so many years ago.

    A Freetinker in Alcoholics Anonymous is a classic.

    I have no optimism about getting any significant revisions from a professedly non religious society that clings to the Lord’s Prayer like a pitbull on a pant leg.

    I much like that we are producing literature independently and that the Grapevine is an ally in our cause.

    All the best.

    • John L. October 15, 2018 at 10:01 am Reply

      Bob, it was a pleasure for me to meet you.  Your book, Key Players in AA History, has great information, not covered in the “conference-approved” histories.

  8. Marty K. October 14, 2018 at 4:46 pm - Reply

    Enjoyed the article and John’s rebellious take on the steps. However, I think there is a bit of confusion with the misunderstanding of religiosity with spiritualism, and all things non-materialistic. I’m an atheist and have fled the traditional “God” AA meetings for the  most part. I think we need be careful in creating an intellectual program devoid of the need for self-examination and promoting lives, not just alcohol free, but directed to lives lived on a higher plane where we experience rigorous honesty, humility, compassion, willingness, non-judgmentalism, gratitude and unconditional love exhibited in service to others. To me these are spiritual principles, without any need to believe in a “God.” For me the steps are a basic outline for living a recovery directed toward the “better angels of our nature”(just a metaphor). I think we agree more than we might disagree here  and that semantics may be the primary issue.

    I love the 12 steps- I take the core values and spiritual  principles and modify and metaphorize where needed. Otherwise I think we need to drop the AA affiliation and call ourselves something else. Thanks for an enlightening article, appreciate the fresh  take on AA.

    • Karl H October 15, 2018 at 8:07 am Reply

      Well said, Marty!  Spirituality and Religion are two completely different things.  Each individual is made up of three things: Mind, Body, and Spirit.  Spirit is the “flavor” of the persona, so to speak.  How many people have you encountered that have an extroverted, gregarious, outgoing spirit?  Or a shy, quiet, introverted spirit?  Or somebody who is kind of “flat” in their approach to life?  Courage versus cowardice?  Spirit exists.  To deny this is just as bad as insisting upon “God” in recovery.  It was my miserable spirit that led me to using alcohol or opiates as a crutch to deal with a life that I couldn’t deal with otherwise.  True, it was not drinking, a day at a time, that weaned me off of alcohol, but the miserable spirit remains.  AA introduced me to the idea of spiritual development, which is helping me immensely.  It is only through dealing with spirit, actively seeking to improve my outlook on life, myself, and humanity in general, that I can hope to avoid falling into the alcohol trap once again.  I managed to stop drinking for over thirty years by way of sheer will-power, but I was one miserable SOB and just substituted work for booze.  Now, after this last go-round with alcohol,   I am freethinker enough to realize that I am not the ultimate power in all of creation; I don’t know everything, and neither does anyone else.  There could well be something like a God or Higher Power somehow, somewhere; this can neither be proven or disproven.  This remains an area of private, personal choice. If it works for you, great; if not, then just leave it, but in either case, it’s wrong to require others to conform to one belief system or the other.

  9. life-j October 14, 2018 at 4:05 pm - Reply

    John, thanks, I think I agree with you on all points. Let’s kick the BB and 12×12 upstairs. probably won’t be able to happen until the recovery centers quit buying a million of them every year. They’re too big a part of the budget right now.  It was really good to have the participation of three  professionals in Toronto. it seems like cooperation with the professional community so far has been too much about AA telling them how recovery is done, and not enough listening. Lets face it, AA is way behind the professional community at this point. And I too want to remain part of AA and help it revise itself.

    I think one of the biggest problems is conference approved literature, helps cement the fundamentalism.

  10. Dennis T October 14, 2018 at 2:59 pm - Reply


  11. Ed O October 14, 2018 at 10:47 am - Reply

    All articles about secular AA are a breath of fresh air, and I don’t usually take umbrage with any of the ideas set forth by writers like John L, only would like to add a small experiential piece of mine own story.  Actually it’s a huge piece.  Having been atheistically sober for over 40 years, one idea has become glaringly obvious that seems to be left out of John’s “One day at a time” formula.


    Thinking we can “one day at a time” it by our lonesomes will eventually lead to that dreaded first drink.  The magic of AA is not the 12 steps, not the traditions, and certainly not some weird kind of made-up god … unless god = Group Of Drunks.  No, it is simply the old axiom of: “It takes a village.”

    Here’s what I consider at least some anecdotal proof: Put me and “god” on a street corner with a bottle of wine in my fist (I was a street person for 10 years) and I’ll prolly drink that-there rot-gut.  Put me on that same street corner with another recovering alcoholic and together we just may have the power to pour that damned wine down the gutter TOGETHER.

    I’m of the un-humble opinion that’s what happened when ‘ol Bill visited ‘ol Bob in the hospital.  At some point, Bill might have looked his watch and thought: “Damn, I been talkin’ to this dude for one long chunk of time and ain’t even THOUGHT about a drink!’ … or some such scenario.  I believe THIS story was the real beginning of our self-help healing community.  The rest is all b.s., but I like some of the b.s.

    BTW, this website is awesome … one of the best ways for me to stay in touch with all you other godless ex-drunks.

    • John L. October 14, 2018 at 4:59 pm Reply

      Ed O. — I agree with you. and am sorry if I slighted the Fellowship in this article.  In Chapter 8 of my book I state: “The Fellowship and the 24-Hour Plan are the two pillars of Alcoholics Anonymous.”  I devote a chapter to each of these.  BTW, Bill and Bob were not the first to conceive of alcoholics helping each other to get and stay sober.  A fellowship of recovering alcoholics goes back at least to the Washingtonians in the middle of the 19th century.

  12. Marty N. October 14, 2018 at 9:27 am - Reply

    John, I cannot say if the “as suggested” was on the 1939 window shades or not.  I will make the assumption that it was.

    Thanks for a very well thought out article.  I agree with you completely.  Somehow I have stumbled through 37 years of reasonably contented sobriety without praying, so it must be possible.  Life is good.  I’m still not able to get in touch with the literature committee in N.Y. regarding when that was changed.  I would think it would have had to go through the committee, but who knows.  Maybe they just think I’m a trouble maker and are ignoring me.  Thanks again.  Marty N.    Dudley Day At A Time Group

    • Bob K October 14, 2018 at 5:06 pm Reply


    • John L. October 14, 2018 at 5:03 pm Reply

      Marty, thank you for supplying the photo of the Dudley Steps.  It would certainly be interesting to know if there was debate over removing “Suggested” from the Steps.

  13. XBarbarian October 14, 2018 at 7:39 am - Reply

    Thanks, John. Originally from Quincy, now in FL, I resonate with your straight to the point style!

    While it would be great to maintain alliance, change that which screams need for changing, just like politics, we are dealing with fearful folk, desperately attached to their wrong understandings. Changing that, I think impossible in any short term, therefore, best to continue on our own, while infiltrating the existing hierarchy and planting seeds.

    I posted this to my FB audience, just yesterday:
    Spiritual Awakening
    A renewal of my enthusiasm for life, my willingness to be responsible, my commitment to face my fears, to do the right thing, to develop transparency, even when I do not want to. Spirit – Zeal for life
    What it is not, is the frequency I mumble “prayers”, my adoption of “god club” language (which is Ego: a cop out to find instant circle of people, bypassing accountability), finding imaginary god

    the single value of a “relationship with a higher power” is the creation of a place to dump the stuff we have no power over anyway. a target. a location to send fears and hopes. but we can learn to let go, detach, without needing an invisible man in the sky to receive that which we let go of.

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